Hogarth, Burne. Dynamic anatomy

Hogarth, B. (2003). Dynamic anatomy: revised and expanded. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications.

The premise of the human figure does not propose a restatement of medical anatomy. To rediscover Vesalius is no
twentieth-century triumph; Vesalian anatomy must be given back to Vesalius. An advance in anatomy for art must be made in
artistic anatomy. Muscle and bone structure must be left off where they inhibit or destroy understanding of surface form,
artistic and expressive form. The anatomical figure of art must make a contribution to the dynamics of the living figure,
of interrelationship of masses in motion, of insights into the figure to be used by artists and students of art, not medical
students and surgeons (pag 41)

The neck column consists of five important masses. They give shape and form to the neck. When they are drawn badly, the form
is destroyed. Further, the cervical vertebrae, the seven neck bones, have no external form-producing effect whatsoever. The
five neck shapes are: the middle tracheal funnel, starting from the wide slope under the jaw and tapering to the upper box
of the larynx (the Adam’s apple), and wedging into the pit of the neck; the two winding side masses of the sternomastoid,
moving out from behind the ear to the front collarbones; and the two back neck muscles, the upper arms of the trapezius,
attached to the base of the skull and widening onto the back shoulders. These groups are easily observed and retain their
distinctive forms in all manner of views. The trapezius, seen frontally, has a deep fossa, or trench, between its thick
form and the collarbone. (pag 118)